In Ethiopia, considerable potential exists to enhance food production and rural livelihoods through better rainwater management – interventions which enable smallholder farmers to increase agricultural production – focusing on livestock, trees, fish as well as crops – by making better use of available rainwater while sustaining the natural resource base (water and soils) in rainfed farming systems.
Ethiopia has invested extensively in RWM interventions, in particular soil and water conservation and afforestation, over the last 40 years, but often with disappointing impact, for multiple reasons. Given this limited success in natural resource conservation, a new approach is clearly needed, but what should it be?
This report highlighted various livelihood issues that need to be considered if RWM activities are to be successful; it concludes with six recommendations:
- Shift the focus of targets from outputs to outcomes;
- Enhance monitoring and evidence collection on RWM with a focus on impact and sustainability;
- Revitalize and capitalize on the development agent system;
- Strengthen local institutions’ roles in natural resource management;
- Move towards more meaningful participation;
- Open lines of communication to foster innovation capacity.