Water


This paper examines the advance time of furrow irrigation at Koga.

Koga irrigation scheme was developed to irrigate about 7004 ha. Furrow irrigation is the recommended method for the distribution of water. However, furrow irrigation has inherent inefficiencies due to deep percolation on the upper end and runoff at the lower end of the furrow. These losses depend on furrow length, furrow gradient, surface roughness, stream size and cutoff time. These factors play significant role to influence the advance time of irrigation and the operation rule of the scheme.

The experiment was conducted during 2012 irrigation season in two periods (February and April). The advance time of irrigation was monitored at three discharge rates and four furrow gradients at 90–110 m furrow length. The required discharge was measured using RBC flume. The average advance time at respective discharge rates of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8 litre/sec range from 290–460 min, 150–437 min and 100–294 min during 1st irrigation; and 115–370 min, 78–189 min and 43–217 min during 2nd irrigation. The advance time vary greatly among the discharge rates when the furrow length increases. The advance time of water at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 % gradients was 236, 181, 197 and 398 min at 1st irrigation and 163, 175, 220 and 88 min at 2nd irrigation respectively. Furrow gradients and surface irregularities result in great variation of advance time. The advance time becomes shorter when the field gets smoother during 2nd irrigation. Under non-levelled and irregular field conditions, 0.6–0.8 litre/sec application rate can be suggested to irrigate 30–40 m furrow lengths in order to improve application efficiency above 60% and to optimize the daily operation rule of the overall scheme.

The result of this study indicates the relevance of examining the furrow length, discharge and application time recommended in the feasibility study of irrigation schemes.

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See the full proceedings of the NBDC Science meeting


This paper was first presented at the Nile Basin Development Challenge Science meeting. The NBDC Science meeting was held on 9 and 10 July 2013 at the ILRI-Ethiopia campus, with the objectives to exchange experiences and research results across NBDC scientists involved in the NBDC projects and to discuss challenges and possible solutions.

Mixed crop–livestock farming system is a major livelihood strategy in most sub-Sahara African countries. Low water use efficiency and water scarcity characterize the dominant rainfed agricultural production system in the densely populated highlands of Ethiopia. Improving water productivity in the rainfed system is among the ways of overcoming the water scarcity challenge.

This study was conducted in Meja watershed, located in Jeldu district, West Shewa in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate economic crop water productivity based on agro-ecology and crop management practices. The watershed was classified into three landscape positions (local agro-ecologies) and major crops representing at least 70% of each landscape position were identified through discussion with farmers and development agents.

Five farmer fields were randomly selected for each major crop and crop management practices implemented by the farmers were monitored and yield (grain or tuber and straw) was measured at harvest. The local market value of the crops and the production cost was estimated based on the local market value for labour and other inputs. CROPWAT model was used to estimate effective precipitation based on weather data generated using NewLocClim and crop characteristics.

The result indicated that the landscape positions, crop variety and management practices significantly influenced the net economic water productivity. The net economic crop water productivity for barley, wheat, tef, sorghum and maize grains and fresh potato tubers were 3.31, 2.45, 3.09, 3.01 and 5.20 and ETB 13.56 m-3, respectively. Similarly, physical water productivity of the crops ranged from 0.47 for teff to 9.98 kg m-3 for fresh potato tubers. Hence, farmers can enhance economic benefit from the land and water resources they are endowed with rainfed by using improved agronomic practices that could raise grain/tuber and biomass yield. Enhancing improved input use, improving access to market for outputs and integrating livestock with crops may further augment the benefit at system scale.

Read the paper

See the full proceedings of the NBDC Science meeting


This paper was first presented at the Nile Basin Development Challenge Science meeting. The NBDC Science meeting was held on 9 and 10 July 2013 at the ILRI-Ethiopia campus, with the objectives to exchange experiences and research results across NBDC scientists involved in the NBDC projects and to discuss challenges and possible solutions.

Ethiopia’s policies and programs on sustainable land and water management have evolved over several decades and have had important positive impacts on land management and livelihoods.

These policies and programs can be further transformed and integrated into a new paradigm that will better enable poor smallholder farmers to improve their food security, livelihoods and incomes while conserving the natural resource base.

Implementation of the eight core elements of this paradigm will greatly improve the long-term benefits of the Sustainable Land Management Program and related interventions in Ethiopia.

At local levels it will enable rural women and men to improve their incomes and livelihoods. At national level it will help raise the rate of agricultural growth while conserving precious natural resources.

Essential elements
Eight elements make up the new paradigm. Success is most likely if all of them are included in an integrated way. A landscape or watershed perspective is central to the new paradigm.

  1. Empower local communities and develop their leadership capacities to achieve long-term benefits and sustainable outcomes.
  2. Integrate and share scientific and local knowledge and encourage innovation through ‘learning by doing’.
  3. Strengthen and transform institutional and human capacities among all stakeholders to achieve the potential benefits of sustainable land management.
  4. Create, align and implement incentives for all parties to successfully implement sustainable innovative programs at scale.
  5. Adapt new models, learning and planning tools and improved learning processes to increase the effectiveness of planning, implementation, and capacity building.
  6. Integrate multiple rainwater management interventions at watershed and basin scales to benefit rainwater management programs.
  7. Attend to downstream and off-site benefits of rainwater management as well as upstream or on-farm benefits and costs.
  8. Improve markets, value chains and multi-stakeholder institutions to enhance the benefits and sustainability of rainwater management investments.

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Read the full technical report “A new integrated watershed rainwater management paradigm for Ethiopia: Key messages from the Nile Basin Development Challenge, 2009–2013

The Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) was a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional participatory “research for development” (R4D) partnership that aimed to improve the resilience of rural livelihoods in the Ethiopian highlands through a landscape approach to rainwater management (RWM).

The NBDC used multiple means to learn lessons from its experience – this ‘Institutional History’ consolidates and communicates some of those lessons. It draws on the large collection of documents, informal and formal reports, minutes of meetings, etc. available through the NBDC wiki and website as well as interviews with 26 partners and stakeholders.

The lessons are embedded in the following areas

  1. Theory of change
  2. Research for development paradigm
  3. Partnerships
  4. Stakeholder engagement
  5. Innovation and innovations
  6. Knowledge integration
  7. Knowledge management and communication
  8. Program design and implementation
  9. Gender and participatory program design

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